Selected publications by Baruch Fischhoff

To request a copy of a paper, please email Rosa Stipanovic at rl1y [at]

Atman, C.J., Bostrom, A., Fischhoff, B. & Morgan, M.G.. (1994). Designing risk communications: Completing and correcting mental models of hazardous processes, Part 1. Risk Analysis, 14, 779-788.

Barth, K.R., Cook, R.L., Downs, J., Switzer, G., & Fischhoff, B. (2002). Social stigma and negative consequences, American Journal of College Health., 50, 153-159.

Beyth-Marom, R. & Fischhoff, B. (1997). Adolescent decisions about risk: A cognitive perspective. In J. Schulenberg, J. Maggs & K. Hurnelmans (Eds.), Health risks and developmental transaction during adolescence (pp. 110-135). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Beyth-Marom, R., Austin, L., Fischhoff, B., Palmgren, C., & Quadrel, M.J. (1993). Perceived consequences of risky behaviors. Developmental Psychology, 29, 549-563.

Beyth-Marom, R., Fischhoff, B., Quadrel, M.J., & Furby, L. (1991). Teaching adolescents decision making. In J. Baron & R. Brown (Eds.). Teaching decision making to adolescents (pp. 19-60). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Bostrom, A., & Fischhoff, B. (2001). Communicating health risks of global climate change. In G. Böhm, J. Nerb, T. McDaniels & H. Spada (Eds.), Environmental risks: Perception, evaluation and management (pp. 31-56). Amsterdam: JAI

Bostrom, A., Atman, C.J., Fischhoff, B., & Morgan, M.G. (1994). Evaluating risk communications: Completing and correcting mental models of hazardous processes. Part 2. Risk Analysis, 14, 789-798.

Bostrom, A., Fischhoff, B., & Morgan, M.G. (1992). Characterizing mental models of hazardous processes: A methodology and an application to radon. Journal of Social Issues, 48(4), 85-100.

Bostrom, A., Morgan, M.G., Fischhoff, B. & Read, D. (1994). What do people know about global climate change? Part 1. Mental models. Risk Analysis, 14, 959-970.

Bruine de Bruin, W., & Fischhoff, B. (2000). The effect of question format on beliefs about AIDS. AIDS Education and Prevention, 12, 187-198.

Bruine de Bruin, W., Fischbeck, P.S., Stiber, N.A., & Fischhoff, B. (2002). What number is “fifty-fifty”?: Distributing excessive 50% responses in elicited probabilities. Risk Analysis, 22, 725-735.

Bruine de Bruin, W., Fischhoff, B., Halpern-Felsher, B., & Millstein, S. (2000). Expressing epistemic uncertainty: It's a fifty-fifty chance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 81, 115-131.

Byram, S., Fischhoff, B., Embrey, M., Bruine de Bruin, W., & Thorne, S. (2001). Mental models of women with breast implants regarding local complications. Behavioral Medicine, 27, 4-14.

Casman, E., Fischhoff, B., Palmgren, C., Small, M., & Wu, F. (2000). Integrated risk model of a drinking waterborne Cryptosporidiosis outbreak. Risk Analysis, 20, 493-509.

Casman, E., Fischhoff, B., Small, M., Dowlatabadi, H., Morgan, M.G., & Rose, J. (2001). Climate change and cryptosporidiosis A qualitatitive analysis. Climate Change, 50, 219-249.

Coussens, C.M., & Fischhoff, B. (Eds.). (2001). Science and risk communication: Symposium summary. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine.

Downs, J.S., Murray, P.J., Bruine de Bruin, W., White, J.P., Palmgren, C. & Fischhoff, B. (in press). Interactive Video Behavioral Intervention to Reduce Adolescent Females' STD Risk: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Social Science & Medicine.

Downs, J.S., Bruine de Bruin, W., Murray, P.J., & Fischhoff, B. (2006). Specific STI knowledge may be acquired too late. Journal of Adolescent Health, 38, 65-67.

Eggers, S.L., & Fischhoff, B. (in press). A defensible claim? Behaviorally realistic evaluation standards. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing.

Ënglander, T., Farago, K., Slovic, P., & Fischhoff, B. (1986). A comparative analysis of risk perception in Hungary and the United States. Social Behavior, 1, 55-56.

Fischer, G.W., Morgan, G.M., Fischhoff, B., Nair, I., & Lave, L.B. (1991). What risks are people concerned about? Risk Analysis, 11, 303-314.

Fischhoff, B . (1996). The real world: What good is it? Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 65, 232-248.

Fischhoff, B. (1977). Cognitive liabilities and product liability. Journal of Products Liability, 1, 207-220.

Fischhoff, B. (1977). Cost-benefit analysis and the art of motorcycle maintenance. Policy Sciences, 8, 177-202.

Fischhoff, B. (1979). Behavioral aspects of cost-benefit analysis. In G. Goodman and W. Rowe (Eds.), Energy risk assessment (pp. 269-283). London: Academic.

Fischhoff, B. (1980). Clinical decision analysis. Operations Research 28, 28-43.

Fischhoff, B. (1981). Hot air: The psychology of CO-induced climatic change. In J. Harvey (Ed.), Cognition, social behavior and the environment (pp. 163-184). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Fischhoff, B. (1983). Strategic policy preferences. Journal of Social Issues, 39, 133-160.

Fischhoff, B. (1983). Acceptable risk: The case of nuclear power. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 2, 559-575..

Fischhoff, B. (1983). Informed consent for transient nuclear workers. In R. Kasperson (Ed.), Equity issues in radioactive waste management (pp. 301-328). Cambridge, MA: Oelgeschlager, Gunn & Hain.

Fischhoff, B. (1984). Judgmental aspects of risk analysis. In Risk assessment and risk assessment methods: The state of the art. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation.

Fischhoff, B. (1984). Setting standards: A systematic approach to managing public health and safety risks. Management Science, 30, 823-843.

Fischhoff, B. (1985). Cognitive and institutional barriers to "informed consent." In M. Gibson (Ed.), To breathe freely: Risk, consent, and air (pp. 169-185). Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Allanheld.

Fischhoff, B. (1985). Managing risk perceptions. Issues in Science and Technology, 2, 83-96.

Fischhoff, B. (1985). Protocols for environmental reporting: What to ask the experts. The Journalist, Winter, 11-15.

Fischhoff, B. (1985). Risk analysis demystified. NCAP News, 4, 30-32.

Fischhoff, B. (1986). Decision making in complex systems. In E. Hollnagel, G. Mancini and D. Woods (Eds.), Intelligent decision support in process environments (pp. 61-86). Heidelberg, FRG: Springer Verlag.

Fischhoff, B. (1987). Do we want a better theory of deterrence? Journal of Social Issues, 43(4), 73-77.

Fischhoff, B. (1987). Treating the public with risk communications: A public health perspective. Science, Technology, and Human Values, 12(3&4), 13-19.

Fischhoff, B. (1988). Judgmental aspects of forecasting: Needs and possible trends. International Journal of Forecasting, 4, 331-339.

Fischhoff, B. (1988). Specifying value measurements. In B. Driver, G. Peterson, and R. Gregory (Eds.), Evaluating amenity resources (pp. 107-116). New York: Venture.

Fischhoff, B. (1989). Eliciting knowledge for analytical representation. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 13, 448-461.

Fischhoff, B. (1989). Making decisions about AIDS. In V. Mays, G. Albee, & S. Schneider (Eds.), Primary prevention of AIDS (pp. 168-205). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Fischhoff, B. (1989). Modeling decision making for system design. J.I. Elkind, S. Card, J. Hochberg, & B.M. Huey (Eds.). Human performance models for computer-aided engineering (pp. 275-290). Washington, D.C.: National Research Council. Reissued by Academic Press (1990).

Fischhoff, B. (1989). Risk: A guide to controversy. Apendix to National Research Council. Improving risk communications (pp. 211-319). Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Fischhoff, B. (1990). Psychology and public policy: Tool or tool maker? American Psychologist, 45, 57-63.

Fischhoff, B. (1990). Understanding long-term environmental risks. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 3, 315-330.

Fischhoff, B. (1991) Report from Poland: Science and politics in the midst of environmental disaster. Environment, 33(2), 13-17, 37.

Fischhoff, B. (1991). Nuclear decisions: Cognitive limits to the thinkable. In P. E. Tetlock, J. L. Husbands, R. Jervis, P. C. Stern, and C. Tilly (Eds.), Behavior, society, and nuclear war, (pp 110-192). New York: Oxford University Press.

Fischhoff, B. (1992). Giving advice: Decision theory perspectives on sexual assault. American Psychologist, 47, 577-588.

Fischhoff, B. (1992). Risk taking: A developmental perspective. In J.F. Yates (Ed.), Risk-taking behavior (pp. 133-162). Chichester: Wiley.

Fischhoff, B. (1993). Transaction analysis: A framework and an application to insurance decisions. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 7, 53-69.

Fischhoff, B. (1994). Acceptable risk: A conceptual proposal. Risk: Health, Safety & Environment, 1, 1-28.

Fischhoff, B. (1994). What forecasts (seem to) mean. International Journal of Forecasting, 10, 387-403.

Fischhoff, B. (1995). Ranking risks. In Risk: Health Safety & Environment, 6, 189-200.

Fischhoff, B. (1995). Risk perception and communication unplugged: Twenty years of process. Risk Analysis, 15, 137-145.

Fischhoff, B. (1995). What do people need to know about AIDS? In Assessing the social and behavioral science base for HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention. Background papers (pp. 31-43). Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine, Division of Neuroscience and Behavioral Health.

Fischhoff, B. (1996). Public values in risk research. Annals of the American Academy of Political & Social Science, 545, 75-84.

Fischhoff, B. (1997). What do psychologists want? Contingent valuation as a special case of asking questions. In R. J. Kopp, W.W. Pommerehne, and N. Schwarz (Eds.), Determining the value of nonmarketed goods (pp. 189-217). New York: Plenum.

Fischhoff, B. (1998). Communicate unto others... Reliability Engineering and System Safety , 59, 63-72.

Fischhoff, B. (1998). Diagnosing stigma. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 59, 47-48.

Fischhoff, B. (1999). Forever teen. Framtider, 18(1), 16-23.

Fischhoff, B. (1999). What do patients want? Help in making effective choices. Effective Clinical Practice, 2(3), 198-200.

Fischhoff, B. (1999). Why (cancer) risk communication can be hard. Journal of the National Cancer Institute Monographs, 25, 7-13.

Fischhoff, B. (2000). Informed consent in eliciting environmental values. Environmental Science and Technology, 38, 1439-1444.

Fischhoff, B. (2000). Need to know: Analytical and psychological criteria. Roger Williams University Law Review, 6, 55-79.

Fischhoff, B. (2000). Scientific management of science? Policy Sciences, 33, 73-87.

Fischhoff, B. (2001). Adolescent vulnerability and behavioral interventions. In P.B. Baltes & N.J. Smelser (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences (Vol. 1, pp. 116-119). Kidlington, UK: Pergamon.

Fischhoff, B. (2001). Decision making. Encyclopedia of psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association and Oxford University Press.

Fischhoff, B. (2001). Defining stigma. In J. Flynn, H. Kunreuther & P. Slovic (Eds.), Risk, media, and stigma (pp. 361-368). London: Earthscan.

Fischhoff, B. (2001). Environmental cognition, perception, and attitudes. In P.B. Baltes & N.J. Smelser (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences (Vol. 7, pp. 4596-4602). Kidlington, UK: Pergamon.

Fischhoff, B. (2001). Learning from experience. In J.S. Armstrong (Ed.), Handbook of forecasting principles (pp. 484-494). Norwell, MA: Kluwer.

Fischhoff, B. (2001). Understanding public values and attitudes related to ecological risk management. Chair’s summary. EPA/SAB Workshop. Washington, DC, May 23 & 24, 2001.

Fischhoff, B. (2002). Assessing and communicating the risks of terrorism. In A.H. Teich, S.D. Nelson, & S.J. Lita (Eds.), Science and technology in a vulnerable world (pp. 51-64). Washington, DC: AAAS.

Fischhoff, B. (2002). Risk perception, risk communication, risk taking. Journal of Psychology and Financial Markets, 3, 102-111.

Fischhoff, B. (2002). Heuristics and biases in application. In T. Gilovich, D. Griffin & D.Kahneman (Eds.), The psychology of judgment: Heuristics and biases. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Fischhoff, B. (in press). Cognitive issues in stated preference methods. In K-G. Mäler & J. Vincent (Eds.), Handbook of Environmental Economics. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Fischhoff, B. (in press). Realistic risk disclosure in newly normal times. In P. Shane (Ed.), Security, technology and privacy. New York: The Century Foundation.

Fischhoff, B. & Beyth-Marom, R. (1983). Hypothesis evaluation from a Bayesian perspective. Psychological Review, 90, 239-260.

Fischhoff, B., Bruine de Bruin, W., Perrin, W., & Downs, J.S. (in press). Travel risks in a time of terror. Risk Analysis.

Fischhoff, B. & Cox, L. A., Jr. (1985). Conceptual framework for regulatory benefit assessment. In J. D. Bentkover, V. T. Covello and J. Mumpower (Eds. ), Benefits assessment: The state of the art (pp. 51-84). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: D. Reidel.

Fischhoff, B., & Eggers, S. (in press). The content of warnings: A behavioral decision research approach. In M. Wogalter (ed.), The handbook of warnings. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Fischhoff, B. & Furby, L. (1983). Psychological dimensions of climatic change. In R. S. Chen, E. Boulding and S. H. Schneider (Eds.), Social science research and climate change: An interdisciplinary perspective (pp. 183-203). Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel.

Fischhoff, B. & Furby, L. (1986). A review and critique of Tolley, Randall et al. "Establishing and valuing the effects of improved visibility in the Eastern United States". ERI Technical Report 86-8. Eugene, OR: Eugene Research Institute.

Fischhoff, B. & Furby, L. (1988). Measuring values: A conceptual framework for interpreting transactions. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 1 147-184.

Fischhoff, B. & Furby, L. (1989). Facing rape before the fact. Carnegie Mellon Magazine, 1(3), 17-23.

Fischhoff, B. & Johnson, S. (1997). The possibility of distributed decision making. In Z. Shapira (Ed.), Organizational decision making (pp. 216-237). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Fischhoff, B. & MacGregor, D. (1982). Subjective confidence in forecasts. Journal of Forecasting, 1, 155-172.

Fischhoff, B. & MacGregor, D. (1983). Judged lethality: How much people seem to know depends upon how they are asked. Risk Analysis, 3, 229-236.

Fischhoff, B. & Merz, J.F. (1994). The inconvenient public: Behavioral research approaches to reducing product liability risks. In J.R. Hunziker & T.O. Jones (Eds.), Product liability and innovation (pp. 159-189). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Fischhoff, B. & Quadrel, M.J. (1995). Adolescent alcohol decisions. In G.M. Boyd, J. Howard, & R.A. Zucker (Eds.). Alcohol problems among adolescents: Current directions in prevention research (pp. 59-84). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Fischhoff, B. (1990). What's it worth to you? A review of Using surveys to value public goods: The contingent valuation method by R.C. Mitchell & R.T. Carson. Public Opinion Quarterly, 54, 286-294.

Fischhoff, B. (1991). Value elicitation: Is there anything in there? American Psychologist, 46, 835-847.

Fischhoff, B., Bostrom, A., & Quadrel, M.J. (2002). Risk perception and communication. In R. Detels, J. McEwen, R. Beaglehole & H. Tanaka (Eds.), Oxford textbook of public health. (pp. 1105-1123). London: Oxford University Press.

Fischhoff, B., & Bruine de Bruin, W. (1999). Fifty/fifty = 50? Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 12, 149-163.

Fischhoff, B., & Downs, J. (1997). Accentuate the relevant. Psychological Science, 8(3), 1-5.

Fischhoff, B., & Downs, J. (1997). Decision-making theory and HIV disease. Focus, 12(5), 1-4.

Fischhoff, B., & Downs, J. (1997). Overt and covert communication about emerging foodborne pathogens. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 3, 489-495.

Fischhoff, B., & Fischhoff, I. (2001). Will they hate us? Anticipating unacceptable risks. Risk Management, 3(4), 7-18.

Fischhoff, B., & Fischhoff, I. (2002). Publics’ opinions of biotechnologies. AgBiotech Forum, 4(3&4), 155-162.

Fischhoff, B., & Manski, C. (Eds.). (1999). Preference elicitation. Special (triple) issue of Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 19(1-3). Reprinted as a book by Kluwer, Boston.

Fischhoff, B., & Small, M. (2000). Human behavior in industrial ecology modeling. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 3(2/3), 4-7.

Fischhoff, B., & Willis, H. (2002). Measures of adolescent vulnerability. Journal of Adolescent Health.

Fischhoff, B., Crowell, N.A., & Kipke, M. (Eds.). (1999). Adolescent decision making: Implications for prevention programs. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Fischhoff, B., Downs, J., & Bruine de Bruin, W. (1998). Adolescent vulnerability: A framework for behavioral interventions. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 7, 77-94.

Fischhoff, B., Fischhoff, I., Casman, E., & Dowlatabadi, H. (in press). Integrated assessment of malaria risk. In E. Casman & H. Dowlatabadi (Eds.), Contextual determinants of malaria. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.

Fischhoff, B., Furby, L., & Gregory, R. (1987). Evaluating voluntary risks of injury. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 19, 51-62.

Fischhoff, B., Furby, L., & Morgan, M. (1987). Rape prevention: A typology and list of strategies. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2, 292-308.

Fischhoff, B., Hohenemser, C., Kasperson, R. E. & Kates, R. W. (1978). Can hazard management be improved? Environment, 20(7), 16-20 & 32-37.

Fischhoff, B., Lanir, Z., & Johnson, S. (1997). Risky lessons: Conditions for organizational learning. In Z . Shapira, R. Garud & P. Nayyar (Eds.), Technological learning, oversights and foresights (pp. 306-324). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Fischhoff, B., Lichtenstein, S., Slovic, P., Derby, S. L. & Keeney, R. L. (1981). Acceptable risk. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Fischhoff, B., Nadaï, A., & Fischhoff, I. (2001). Investing in Frankenfirms. Journal of Psychology and Financial Markets, 2, 100-111.

Fischhoff, B., Parker, A., Bruine de Bruin, W., Downs, J., Palmgren, C., Dawes, R.M., & Manski, C. (2000). Teen expectations for significant life events. Public Opinion Quarterly, 64, 189-205.

Fischhoff, B., Pidgeon, N., & Fiske, S. (1983). Social science and the politics of the arms race. Journal of Social Issues, 39, 161-180.

Fischhoff, B., Quadrel, M.J., Kamlet, M., Loewenstein, G., Dawes, R., Fischbeck, P., Klepper, S., Leland, J., & Stroh, P. (1993). Embedding effects: Stimulus representation and response modes. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 6, 211-234.

Fischhoff, B., Riley, D., Kovacs, D., & Small, M. (1998). What information belongs in a warning? A mental models approach. Psychology and Marketing, 15, 663-686.

Fischhoff, B., Slovic, P. & Lichtenstein, S. (1978). Fault trees: Sensitivity of assessed failure probabilities to problem representation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 4, 330-344.

Fischhoff, B., Slovic, P. & Lichtenstein, S. (1979). Weighing the risks. Environment, 21(5), 17-20, 32-38. Reprinted in P.Slovic (Ed.), The perception of risk. London: Earthscan.

Fischhoff, B., Slovic, P. & Lichtenstein, S. (1980). Knowing what you want: Measuring labile values. In T. Wallsten (Ed.), Cognitive processes in choice and decision behavior (pp. 117-141). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Fischhoff, B., Slovic, P. & Lichtenstein, S. (1982). Lay foibles and expert fables in judgments about risk. American Statistician, 36, 240-255.

Fischhoff, B., Slovic, P. & Lichtenstein, S. (1983). The "public" vs. the "experts": Perceived vs. actual disagreement about the risks of nuclear power. In V. Covello G. Flamm, J. Rodericks and R. Tardiff (Eds.), Analysis of actual vs. perceived risks (pp. 235-249). New York: Plenum.

Fischhoff, B., Slovic, P., Lichtenstein, S., Read, S. & Combs, B. (1978). How safe is safe enough? A psychometric study of attitudes towards technological risks and benefits. Policy Sciences, 8, 127-152. Reprinted in P.Slovic (Ed.), The perception of risk. London: Earthscan, 2001.

Fischhoff, B., Slovic, P., Page, R. T., & MacLean, D. (1984). Editorial. Nuclear power: Time for detente. Risk Analysis, 4, 153. Reprinted in Bulletin of the Health Physics Society, 1985, 13(3), 8-9.

Fischhoff, B., Svenson, O., & Slovic, P. (1987). Active responses to environmental hazards. In D. Stokols and I. Altman (Eds.), Handbook of environmental psychology (pp. 1089-1133). New York: Wiley.

Fischhoff, B., Watson, S., & Hope, C. (1984). Defining risk. Policy Sciences, 17, 123-139.

Fischhoff, B., Welch, N., & Frederick, S. (1999). Construal processes in preference elicitation. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 19, 139-164.

Fischhoff, B., & Wesseley, S. (2003). Managing patients with inexplicable health problems. British Medical Journal, 326, 595-597.

Florig, H.K., Morgan, M.G., Morgan, K.M., Jenni, K.E., Fischhoff, B., Fischbeck, P.S., & DeKay, M. (2001). A deliberative method for ranking risks (1): Overview and test bed development. Risk Analysis, 21, 913-922.

Frederick, S. & Fischhoff, B. (1998). Scope insensitivity in elicited values. Risk Decision and Policy. 3, 109-124.

Furby, L, Gregory, R., Slovic, P., & Fischhoff, B. (1988). Electric power transmission lines, property value and compensation. Journal of Environmental Management, 27, 69-83.

Furby, L. & Fischhoff, B. (1988). Specifying subjective evaluations. A critique of Dickie et al.'s interpretation of their contingent valuation results for reduced minor health symptoms. USEPA Cooperative Agreement #CR814655-01-0. Eugene, OR: Eugene Research Institute.

Furby, L. & Fischhoff, B. (in press). Rape self-defense strategies: A review of their effectiveness. Victimology.

Furby, L., Fischhoff, B., & Morgan, M. (1989). Judged effectiveness of common rape prevention and self-defense strategies. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 4, 44-64.

Furby, L., Fischhoff, B., & Morgan, M. (1991). Rape prevention and self-defense: At what price? Women's Studies International Forum, 14(1/2), 49-62.

Furby, L., Fischhoff, B., & Morgan, M. (1992). Preventing rape: How people perceive the options of defending oneself during an assault. In E.C. Viano (Ed.), Critical issues in victimology: International perspectives (pp. 174-189). New York: Springer Publishers.

Furby, L., Fischhoff, B., & Morgan, M. (1990). Preventing rape: How people perceive the options for assault prevention. In E. Viano (Ed.), The victimology research handbook, (pp 227-259). New York: Garland Publishing, Inc.

Furby, L., Slovic, P., Fischhoff, B., & Gregory, R. (1988). Public perceptions of electric power transmission lines. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 8, 19-43.

Goldberg, J., & Fischhoff, B. (2000). The long-term risks in the short-term benefits: Perceptions of potentially addictive activities. Health Psychology, 19, 299-303.

Gregory, R., Fischhoff, B., Butte, G., & Thorne, S. (2003). A multi-channel stakeholder consultation process for energy deregulation. Energy Policy, 31, 1291-9.

Hayakawa, H., Fischbeck, P., & Fischhoff, B. (2000). Mental models of auto risks and insurance: Japanese and American motorists. Journal of Risk Research, 3, 51-67.

Hayakawa, H., Fischbeck, P., & Fischhoff, B. (2000). The Japanese automobile insurance industry: Regulation, market structure, and possible impacts of deregulation. Journal of Insurance Regulation, 18, 385-403.

Hayakawa, H., Fischbeck, P., & Fischhoff, B. (2000). Traffic accident statistics and risk perceptions in Japan and the United States. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 32, 827-835.

Henrion, M. & Fischhoff, B. (1986). Assessing uncertainty in physical constants. American Journal of Physics, 54, 791-798.

Kovacs, D.,C., Fischhoff, B., & Small, M. (2001). PCE in dry cleaning: A mental models study of consumer and operator understanding. Journal of Risk Research. 4, 353-375.

Kovacs, D.C., Small, M.J., Davidson, C., & Fischhoff, B. (1997). Household cleaning products and exposure potential. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemology, 7, 505-520.

Lanir, Z., Fischhoff, B., & Johnson, S. (1988). Military risk taking: C3I and the cognitive functions of boldness in war. Journal of Strategic Studies, 11(1), 96-114.

Lichtenstein, S., Slovic, P., Fischhoff, B, Layman, M. & Combs, B. (1978). Judged frequency of lethal events. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 4, 551-578.

Linville, P.W., Fischer, G.W., & Fischhoff, B. (1993). AIDS risk perceptions and decision biases. In J.B. Pryor & G.D. Reeder (Eds.), The social psychology of HIV infection (pp. 5-38). Hillsdale, NJ Erlbaum.

Löfstedt, R., Fischhoff, B., & Fischhoff, I. (2002). Precautionary principles: General definitions and specific applications to genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 21, 381-407.

Long, J., & Fischhoff, B. (2000). Setting risk priorities: A formal model. Risk Analysis, 20, 339-351.

Maharik, M. & Fischhoff, B. (1992). The risks of nuclear energy sources in space: Some activists' perceptions. Risk Analysis, 12, 383-392.

Maharik, M. & Fischhoff, B. (1993). Contrasting perceptions of the risks of using nuclear energy sources in space. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 13, 243-250.

Maharik, M., & Fischhoff, B. (1993). Public views of using nuclear energy sources in space missions. Space Policy, 9, 99-108.

Maharik, M., Fischhoff, B., & Morgan, M.G. (1993). Risk knowledge and risk attitudes regarding nuclear energy sources in space. Risk Analysis, 13, 345-353.

Mendelsohn, A.B., Belle, S.H., Fischhoff, B., Wisniewski, S.R., Degenholtz, H,, Chelluri, L. (2002). How patients feel about prolonged mechanical ventilation 1 yr later. Critical Care Medicine. 30, 1439-1445.

Merz, J., Fischhoff, B., Mazur, D.J., & Fischbeck, P.S. (1993). Decision-analytic approach to developing standards of disclosure for medical informed consent. Journal of Toxics and Liability, 15, 191-215.

Merz, J.F. & Fischhoff, B. (1990). Informed consent does not mean rational consent: Cognitive limitations on decision making. Journal of Legal Medicine, 11, 321-350.

Morgan, K.M., DeKay, M.L., Fischbeck, P.S., Morgan, M.G., Fischhoff, B., & Florig, H.K. (2001). A deliberative method for ranking risks (2): Evaluation of validity and agreement among risk managers. Risk Analysis, 21, 923-938.

Morgan, M. G., Slovic, P., Nair, I., Geisler, D., MacGregor, D., Fischhoff, B., Lincoln, D., & Florig, K. (1985). Powerline frequency and magnetic fields: A pilot study of risk perceptions. Risk Analysis, 5, 139-149.

Morgan, M.G., Fischhoff, B., Bostrom, A., & Atman, C. (2001). Risk communication: The mental models approach. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Morgan, M.G., Fischhoff, B., Bostrom, A., Lave, L., & Atman, C.J. (1992). Communicating risk to the public. Environmental Science and Technology, 26, 2048-2056.

Morgan, M.G., Fischhoff, B., Lave, L. & Fischbeck, P. (1996). A proposal for ranking risks within federal agencies. In C. Davies (Ed.), Comparing environmental risks (pp. 111-147). Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.

Murphy, A. H., Lichtenstein, S., Fischhoff, B., & Winkler, R. L. (1980). Misinterpretations of precipitation probability forecasts. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 61, 695-701.

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